An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson VII

A. Aorist (Ajjatan“) - Active voice

2nd o ttha
1st mha
paca: to cook
3rd apac“, pac“ apacuµ, pacuµ
  apaci, paci apaciµsu, paciµsu
  he cooked they cooked
2nd apaco, paco apacittha, pacittha
  you cooked you cooked
1st apaciµ, paciµ apacimhŒ, pacimhŒ
  I cooked we cooked
gamu: to go
3rd agam“, gam“ agamuµ, gamuµ
  agami, gami agamiµsu, gamiµsu
2nd agamo, gamo agamittha, gamittha
1st agamiµ, gamiµ agamimhŒ, gamimhŒ
su: to hear
3rd asuö“, suö“ asuöiµsu
  asuöi, suöi suöiµsu
2nd asuöo, suöo asuöittha, suöittha
1st asuöiµ, suöiµ asuöimhŒ, suöimhŒ

In the past tense the augment "a" is optionally used before the root*. The third person "“" is sometimes shortened, and the third person plural "uµ" is often changed into "iµsu". The vowel preceding "ttha" and "mhŒ" is changed into "i". The second person "o" is mostly changed into "i".

Whenever the root or stem ends in a vowel e or Πthe s Aorist is used, i.e. s is added before the suffix.

si   suµ, µsu
si   sittha
siµ   simhŒ
dŒ: to give
SING. dŒ + s + i = adŒsi
PLU. dŒ + µsu = adaµsu
disa: to preach
SING. disa + s + i = desesi
PLU. disa + µsu = desiµsu
ŹhŒ: to stand
SING. ŹhŒ + s + i = aŹŹhŒsi
PLU. ŹhŒ + µsu = aŹŹhaµsu

*This "a" should not be mistaken for the negative prefix "a".

B. Possessive Pronouns

3rd m. n. tassa his tesaµ their
  f. tassŒ her tŒsaµ their
2nd m. f. n. tava, tuyhaµ your or thine tumhŒkaµ your
1st m. f. n. mama, mayhaµ my amhŒkaµ our

These are the Genitive cases of the Personal Pronouns.

Aparaöha m.   afternoon
Ciraµ indec.   long, for a long time
Eva indec.   just, quite, even, only (used as an emphatic affirmative)
H“yo indec.   yesterday
PŒto indec.   early in the morning
PŒtarŒsa m.   morning meal
Pubbaöha m.   forenoon
Purato indec.   in the presence of
SŒyamŒsa m.   evening meal, dinner
Viya indec.   like

Exercise 7-A

1. Buddho loke uppajji.
2. H“yo samaöo dhammaµ desesi.
3. DŒrako pŒto'va* tassa pŒŹhasŒlaµ agam“.
4. īcariyŒ tesaµ sissŒnaµ pubbaöhe ovŒdaµ adaµsu.
5. Ciraµ te amhŒkaµ gharaµ na agamiµsu.
6. DŒrikŒ tŒsaµ janakassa purato aŹŹhaµsu.
7. Tvaµ tassŒ hatthe mayhaµ pottakaµ passo.
8. Tvaµ gaŗgŒyaµ nahŒyituµ pŒto'va agamo.
9. Tvaµ ajja pŒtarŒsaµ na bhujo.
10. Kuhiµ tumhe tumhŒkaµ mittehi saddhiµ aparaöhe agamittha?
11. KasmŒ tumhe'yeva** mama Œcariyassa lekhanŒni na likhittha?
12. Tumhe ciraµ mayhaµ putte na passittha.
13. Ahaµ tuyhaµ paööŒkŒre h“yo na alabhiµ.
14. Aham'eva*** gilŒnŒnaµ ajja osadhaµ adŒsiµ.
15. Ahaµ asse passituµ visikhŒyaµ aŹŹŒsiµ.
16. Mayaµ tuyhaµ Œcariyassa sisse ahosimhŒ.
17. Mayaµ ajja pubbaöhe na uggaöhimhŒ.
18. SamaöŒ viya mayam'pi**** saddhŒya dhammaµ suöimhŒ.

*PŒto + eva = pŒto'va. Here the following vowel is dropped.

**Tumhe + eva = Tumhe yeva. Sometimes "y" is augmented between vowels.

***Ahaµ + eva = aham'eva. When a niggahita is followed by a vowel it is sometimes changed into "m".

****Mayaµ + api = mayam'pi. Here the following vowel is dropped and niggahita is changed into "m".

Exercise 7-B

1. I slept on my bed.
2. I stood in their garden in the evening.
3. I sat on a bench in the hall to write a letter to his friend.
4. We bathed in the river in the early morning*.
5. We ourselves** treated the sick yesterday.
6. For a long time we lived in our uncle's house in the city.
7. Child, why did you stand in front of your teacher?
8. Wife, you cooked rice in the morning.
9. Son, where did you go yesterday?
10. You obtained wisdom through your teachers.
11. Why did you not hear the Doctrine like your father?
12. Where did you take your dinner yesterday?
13. She was standing in her garden for a long time.
14. He himself*** washed the feet of his father.
15. For a long time my friend did not buy goods from his shop.
16. The doctors did not come to the hospital in the afternoon.
17. The boys and girls did not bring their books to school yesterday.
18. I myself gave medicine to the sick last**** morning.

*Use PŒto'va.

**Use mayam'eva.

***Use so eva.

****Use h“yo.