An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson X

A. Declension of Nouns ending in "“"

SŒm“: m. lord, husband
Nom. sŒm“ sŒm“, sŒmino
Voc. sŒm“ sŒm“, sŒmino
Acc. sŒmiµ sŒm“, sŒmino
Instr. sŒminŒ sŒm“bhi, sŒm“hi
Abl. sŒminŒ, sŒmimhŒ, sŒmismŒ sŒm“bhi, sŒm“hi
Dat., Gen. sŒmino, sŒmissa sŒm“naµ
Loc. sŒmini, sŒmimhi, sŒmismiµ sŒm“su
The Loc. sing. has an additional "ni".
Nom. -- --, no
Voc. i --, no
Acc. µ --, no
The rest like "i" terminations.
Daö“: n. one who has a stick
Nom., Voc. daöi daö“, daöini
Acc. daö daö“, daöini
Nom., Voc. i “, ni
Acc. µ “, ni
The rest like the masculine.
NŒr“: f. woman
Nom. nŒr“ nŒr“, nŒriyo
Voc. nŒri nŒr“, nŒriyo
Acc. nŒriµ nŒr“, nŒriyo
Instr., Abl. nŒriyŒ nŒr“bhi, nŒr“hi
Dat., Gen. nŒriyŒ nŒr“naµ
Loc. nŒriyŒ, nŒriyaµ nŒr“su
Nom. -- --, iyo
Voc. i --, iyo
Acc. µ --, iyo
The rest like "i" terminations.


AppamŒda m.   earnestness, heedfulness
Bhagin“ f.   sister
BrahmacŒr“ m.   celibate
DhammacŒr“ m.   he who acts righteously
Dhana n.   wealth
Duggati f.   evil state
Have indec.   indeed, certainly
Iva indec.   like
Janan“ f.   mother
Mahes“ f.   queen
MedhŒv“ m.   wise man
pŒpa n.   evil
PŒpakŒr“ m.   evil-doer
Pu––a n.   merit, good
Pu––akŒr“ m.   well-doer
SeŹŹha adj.   excellent, chief
Sugati f.   good or happy state

B. The Formation of Feminines

Some feminines are formed by adding "Œ" and "“" to the masculines ending in "a".

Aja goat AjΠshe-goat
Assa horse AssΠmare
UpŒsaka male devotee UpŒsikŒ female devotee
DŒraka boy DarikŒ girl
(If the noun ends in "ka", the preceding vowel is often changed into "i".)
Deva god Dev“ goddess
DŒsa servant DŒs“ maid-servant
Nara man NŒr“ woman

Some are formed by adding "ni" or "ini" to the masculines ending in "a", "i", "“", and "u".

RŒja king   RŒjin“ queen
Hatthi elephant   Hatthin“ she-elephant
MedhŒv“ wise man   MedhŒvin“ wise woman
Bhikkhu monk   Bhikkhun“ nun

But :
MŒtula, uncle becomes mŒtulŒn“, aunt and
Gahapati, male house-holder - gahapatŒn“, female house-holder.

Exercise 10-A

1. "Dhammo have rakkhati DhammacŒr“."
2. "Na duggatiµ gacchati dhammacŒr“."
3. NarŒ ca nŒriyo ca pu––aµ katvŒ sugat“su uppajjissanti.
4. Bhagin“ tassa sŒminŒ saddiµ jananiµ passituµ sve gamissati.
5. PŒpakŒr“, tumhe pŒpaµ katvŒ duggat“su uppajjissatha.
6. IdŒni mayaµ brahmacŒrino homa.
7. Mahesiyo nŒr“naµ pu––aµ kŒtuµ dhanaµ denti.
8. Hatthino ca hatthiniyo ca aŹav“su ca pabbatesu ca vasanti.
9. Mayhaµ sŒmino janan“ bhikkhun“na* ca upŒsikŒna ca saŗgaöhi.
10. Mahesi narapatinŒ saddhiµ sve nagaraµ pŒpuöissati.
11. MedhŒvino ca medhŒviniyo ca appamŒdena Dhammaµ uggaöhitvŒ muttiµ labhissanti.
12. Pu––akŒrino brahmacŒr“hi saddhiµ vasituµ icchanti.
13. NŒriyo mahesiµ passituµ nagaraµ agamiµsu.
14. Bhikkhuniyo gahapatŒn“naµ ovŒdaµ adaµsu.
15. "AppamŒda ca medhŒvi - dhanaµ seŹŹhaµ'va** rakkhati."

*Niggahita (µ) when followed by a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group, e.g.,
saµ + gaho = sa
saµ +
ŹhŒna = saöŹhŒna
ahaµ + pi = aham'pi
ahaµ + ca = aha
taµ + dhanaµ = tandhanaµ

**SeŹŹhaµ + iva.

Exercise 10-B

1. Those who act righteously will not do evil and be born in evil states.
2. The well-doers will obtain their deliverance.
3. My husband mounted the elephant and fell on the ground.
4. She went to school with her sister.
5. The queen's mother is certainly a wise lady.
6. Boys and girls are studying with diligence to get presents from their mothers and fathers.
7. Men and women go with flowers in their hands to the temple everyday.
8. My sister is protecting her mother as an excellent treasure.
9. Mother, I shall go to see my uncle and aunt tomorrow.
10. Amongst celebates* there are wise men.
11. Having seen the elephant, the she-goats ran away through fear.
12. The king, accompanied by** the queen, arrived in the city yesterday.

*Use the Locative.

**Use "Saddhiµ".