An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XII

A. Personal Pronouns

Amha: I
Nom. ahaµ mayaµ, amhe, (no)
Acc. maµ, mamaµ amhŒkaµ, amhe, (no)
Instr. mayŒ, (me) amhebhi, amhehi, (no)
Abl. mayΠamhebhi, amhehi
Dat., Gen. mama, mayhaµ, amhaµ, mamaµ, (me) amhŒkaµ, amhe, (no)
Loc. mayi amhesu
Tumha: you
Nom. tvaµ, tuvaµ tumhe, (vo)
Acc. taµ, tavaµ, tvaµ, tuvaµ tumhŒkaµ, tumhe, (vo)
Instr. tvayŒ, tayŒ, (te) tumhebhi, tumhehi, (vo)
Abl. tvayŒ, tayŒ tumhebhi, tumhehi
Dat., Gen. tava, tuyhaµ, tumhaµ, (te) tumhaµ, tumhŒkaµ, (vo)
Loc. tvayi, tayi tumhesu

"te", "µe", "vo", and "no" are not used in the beginning of a sentence.

B. Conditional Mood (Sattam“)

3rd eyya eyyuµ
2nd eyyŒsi eyyŒtha
1st eyyŒmi eyyŒma
paca: to cook
3rd pace, paceyya paceyyuµ
  he should cook they should cook
2nd paceyyŒsi paceyyŒtha
  you should cook you should cook
1st paceyyŒmi paceyyŒma
  I should cook we should cook

The third person singular "eyya" is sometimes changed into "e".

This mood is also used to express wish, command, prayer, etc. When it is used in a conditional sense, the sentence often begins with "sace", "ce" or "yadi" - if.

AlikavŒd“ m.   he who speaks lies
Œroceti (ruca with Œ)   informs, tells, announces
AsŒdhu m.   bad man
  adj.   bad, wicked
Bhajati (bhaja)   associates
Bhaöati (bhaöa)   speaks, recites
DŒna n.   alms, giving, gift
Evaµ indec.   thus
JinŒti (ji)   conquers
Kadariya m.   miser, avaricious person
Kodha m.   anger
Khippaµ indec.   quickly, immediately
Paöita m.   wise man
PŒpaka adj.   evil
SŒdhu m.   good man
  adj.   good
VŒyamati (yamu with vi and a)   strives, tries
Vaööa m.   appearance, colour, praise, quality
Sacca n.   truth
YadŒ indec.   when*
TadŒ indec.   then*


Exercise 12-A

1. "GŒmaµ no gaccheyyŒma."
2. "Buddho'pi Buddhassa bhaöeyya vaööaµ."
3. "Na bhaje pŒpake mitte."
4. "Saccaµ bhaöe, na kujjheyya."
5. "Dhammaµ vo desessŒmi."
6. Sace ahaµ saccŒni bujjheyyŒmi te ŒroceyyŒmi.
7. Yadi tvaµ vŒyŒmeyyŒsi khippaµ paöito bhaveyyŒsi.
8. YŒva tumhe maµ passeyyŒtha tŒva idha tiŹŹheyyŒtha.
9. Sace bhikkhč dhammaµ deseyyuµ mayaµ sŒdhukaµ suöeyyŒma.
10. SŒdhu bhante, evaµ no kareyyŒma.
11. Yadi tvaµ mayŒ saddhiµ gantuµ iccheyyŒsi tava jananiµ ŒrocetvŒ ŒgaccheyyŒsi.
12. Amhesu ca tumhesu ca gahapatayo na khujjheyyuµ.
13. Sace dhammaµ sutvŒ mayi saddhŒ tava uppajjeyya ahaµ tvaµ adhipatiµ kareyyŒmi.
14. YŒva tumhe muttiµ labheyyŒtha tŒva appamŒdena vŒyameyyŒtha.
15. "Akkodhena jine kodhaµ - asŒdhuµ sŒdhunŒ jine
  Jine kadariyaµ dŒnena - saccena alikavŒdinaµ."
16. "Khippaµ vŒyama; paöito bhava."

Exercise 12-B

1. You should not go with him.
2. Children, you should always speak the truth.
3. Rev. Sir. I should like to ask a question from you.
4. Well, you should not be angry with me thus.
5. I shall not go to see your friend until I receive a letter from you.
6. You should endeavour to overcome your anger by patience.
7. If you would listen to my advice, I would certainly go with you.
8. You should tell me if he were to send a book to you.
9. We should like to hear the doctrine from you, Rev. Sir.
10. By giving we should conquer the misers.
11. We should not be born in evil state until we should understand the truths.
12. Would you go immediately and bring the letter to me?
13. If a good person were to associate with a wicked person, he may also become a wicked person.
14. Should wicked persons associate with the wise, they would soon become good men.
15. If you should hear me well, faith should arise in you.