An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XVIII

A. Declension of Satthu

Satthu: m. Teacher
Nom. satthŒ satthŒro
Voc. sattha, satthŒ satthŒro
Acc. satthŒraµ satthŒro, satthŒre
Instr., Abl. satthŒrŒ satthŒrebhi, satthŒrehi
Dat., Gen. satthu, satthuno, satthussa satthŒrŒnaµ, satthŒnaµ
Loc. satthari satthŒresu, satthusu
bhattu, husband
dŒtu, giver
jetu, conqueror
kattu, doer
nattu, nephew
Œtu, knower
netu, leader
sotu, hearer
vattu, talker etc. are declined like "satthu".
Pitu: m. father
Nom. pitΠpitaro
Voc. pita, pitΠpitaro
Acc. pitaraµ pitaro, pitare
Instr., Abl. pitarŒ, pitunŒ pitčbhi, pitčhi, pitarebhi, pitarehi
Dat., Gen. pitu, pituno, pitussa pitarŒnaµ, pit³naµ, pitunnaµ, pitŒnaµ
Loc. pitari pitaresu, pitusu
bhŒtu, brother is declined like "pitu".
mŒtu, mother is also declined like "pitu" with the exception of the following:
Inst., Abl. mŒtarŒ, mŒtuyŒ
Dat., Gen. mŒtu, mŒtuyŒ
Dh“tu, duhitu - daughter, are declined like "mŒtu".

B. Causal Forms (KŒrita)

Causals are formed by adding "e", "aya" to roots ending in "u" and "č", "Œpe", "Œpaya" to roots ending in "Œ" and all the four or two to the other roots. The terminations are added afterwards. All tenses, moods and participles have their own causal forms. The initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, often undergoes vuddhi substitute. Sometimes the vuddhi substitutes "e" and "o" are changed into "aya" and "ava" respectively.

paca + e + ti = pŒceti - causes to cook
paca + aya + ti = pŒcayati
paca + Œpe + ti = pŒcŒpeti
paca + Œpaya + ti = pŒcŒpayati
pŒcesi, pŒcay“, pŒcŒpesi, pŒcŒpay“, he caused to cook
pŒcessati, pŒcayissati, pŒcŒpessati, pŒcŒpayissati, he will cause to cook

dŒ + Œpe = dŒpeti - causes to give
dŒ + Œpaya = dŒpayati - causes to give
chidi + e + ti = chindeti - causes to cut
chidi + Œpe + ti = chindŒpeti - causes to cut
ni + Œpe + ti = nayŒpeti - causes to lead
gamu + e + ti = gameti - causes to go
su + e + ti = sŒveti - causes to hear
bhč + e + ti = bhŒveti - develops (lit. causes to become)

Intransitive verbs become transitive, and ordinary transitive verbs take two objects when they assume causal forms.
Rukkho patati. The tree falls.
So rukkhaµ pŒteti. He makes the tree fall.
DŒso odanaµ pacati. The servant is cooking rice.
So dŒsaµ odanaµ pŒceti. He makes the servant cook rice.

Sometimes the agent of the causal verb or, in other words the indirect object is put in the Instrumental case e.g.,
So dŒsena odanaµ pŒceti.

In some cases the causal forms modify the original meaning of the verb; e.g.,
vaca - to speak, vŒceti - reads
bhč - to be, bhŒveti - develops, cultivates

Exercise 18-A

1. "Nam'atthu* satthuno."
2. "TayŒ sutaµ dhammaµ amhe'pi sŒvehi."
3. SatthŒ sŒvake dhammaµ desŒpeti (or sŒvakehi).
4. PitŒ puttaµ gŒmaµ gameti.
5. MŒtŒ attano dh“taraµ nahŒpetvŒ pŒŹhasŒlaµ pesesi.
6. BhattŒ attano bhariyŒya atithayo saŗgaöhŒpesi.
7. Dh“taro, dŒsehi dŒrčni ŒharŒpetvŒ aggiµ dŒpetha.
8. Dh“tčhi mŒtaro ca pitaro ca rakkhitabbŒ, mŒtčhi ca pitčhi ca dh“taro rakkhitabbŒ.
9. MŒtŒ dh“tare satthŒraµ vandŒpeti.
10. Ahaµ mŒtuyŒ ca pitarŒ ca saddhiµ ŒrŒmaµ gantvŒ te dhammaµ sŒvessŒmi.
11. MŒtula, mayaµ pana tava nattŒro homa. TasmŒ no sŒdhukaµ uggaöhŒpehi.
12. SatthŒ sotŒre saccŒni bodhento gŒmŒ gŒmaµ nagarŒ nagaraµ vicarati.
13. Tesaµ raŹŹhe dhitimante netŒre na passŒma.
14. MŒtari ca pitari ca Œdarena mayhaµ bhattŒ attano dhanena mahantaµ gharaµ kŒrŒpetvŒ te tattha vasŒpesi.

*Namo + atthu = nam'atthu
atthu - Benedictive mood 3rd person singular of asa - to be.

Exercise 18-B

1. Talkers are not always doers.
2. The leaders are not always conquerors.
3. My father taught my brother well and made him a leader of the country.
4. I made my mother give alms to the disciples of the Teacher.
5. My nephew is reading the letter sent by his father.
6. Virtuous daughters cause their husbands to treat their mothers and fathers well.
7. Daily my father and mother cultivate good-will towards all beings and advise us also to do likewise.
8. Of my two brothers one is a talker and the other is a doer.
9. I do not cause my servants to give food to my husband.
10. Let the Teacher cause the monks to preach the Doctrine. There will be knowers. They will understand the Truth and make others realise their Deliverance.
11. Our father made our brothers cut the trees in the garden.
12. The conquerors caused the people to erect a large hall in the kingdom.
13. Daughters, you should not do evil, nor cause others to do evil.
14. The monks should neither dig the ground nor cause others to dig the ground.