An Elementary Pali Course

Lesson XXII

Taddhita - Nominal Derivatives

Words formed by adding suffixes to the bases of substantives, primary or derived from roots, adjectives, etc. are called Taddhita.

Some of these derivatives are treated as nouns and adjectives and are declined accordingly. A few others are treated as indeclinables.

There are many such suffixes which are used in various senses. The following are the principal ones of these :-

1. "A" is used to signify possession, pedigree, etc.

In this case the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.

––Œ + a = pa––a (m. Nom. Sing. pa––o), he who has wisdom, or wise.
SaddhΠ+ a = saddha (m. Nom. Sing. saddho), he who has faith, or faithful; devotional.
h + a = VŒsiha - vŒsiho, son of Vasiha; vŒsih, daughter of Vasiha; vŒsiha, Vasiha clan.

2. "Ika*" is used to signify 'pertaining to', 'mixed with', 'crossing', 'versed in', 'engaged in', etc.

In this case too the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.

Dhamma + ika = dhammika, righteous.
KŒyŒ + ika = kŒyika, bodily
Nagara + ika = nŒgarika, pertaining to the city, i.e., urban.
Loka + ika = lokika, worldly
Loa + ika = loika, mixed with salt
NŒvŒ + ika = nŒvika, navigator, he who crosses in a ship
Magga + ika = maggika, traveller
Vinaya + ika = venayika, he who studies vinaya
BhaŒgŒra + ika = bhaŒgŒrika, treasurer

*English: -ish and -ic, as in hellish or heroic.

3. "Ima" and "iya" are also used to signify 'pertaining to'.

Anta + ima = antima, last
Majjha + ima = majjhima, middle, central
Loka + iya = lokiya, worldly

4. "I", "ika", "ima", "mantu", "vantu", and "v" are used to signify possession.

a + = da, he who has a stick
Chatta + = chatt, he who has an umbrella
Putta + ika = puttika, he who has sons
a + ika = daika, he who has a stick
Putta + ima = puttima, he who has sons
Dhiti + mantu = dhitimantu, courageous
Bandhu + mantu = bandhumantu, he who has relatives
Gua + vantu = guavantu, virtuous
MedhŒ + v = medhŒv, he who has wisdom

5. "Maya" is used in the sense of 'made of'.

Aya + maya = ayomaya, made of iron
DŒru + maya = dŒrumaya, wooden
Mana + maya = manomaya
*, mental
Rajata + maya = rajatamaya, made of silver
Suvaa + maya = suvaamaya, or sovaamaya, golden

*Mana and other words similarly declined, when combined with another word or with the suffix maya, change their final vowel "a" into "o". See lesson XIX.

6. "TŒ" is used ta signify collection, state, or quality. The derivatives thus formed are always in the feminine.

GŒma + tŒ = gŒmatŒ, collection of villages
Jana + tŒ = janatŒ, multitude
BŒla + tŒ = bŒlatŒ, ignorance, childhood
Dhamma + tŒ = dhammatŒ, state of things, nature
Manussa + tŒ = manussatŒ, manhood

7. "Tta*" and "ya" are also used to signify state or quality**. The derivatives thus formed are in the neuter.

In the case of "ya" the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.

Aroga + ya = Œrogya, health, freedom from disease
BŒla + ya = bŒlya, ignorance, childhood
+ tta = bŒlatta, ignorance
Manussa + tta = manussatta, manhood
Nla + tta = nlatta, blueness
ita + ya = PŒitya, and Paicca, wisdom

*Saskrt, tvam; English "dom", Kingdom.

**Sometimes the word "bhŒva", which means nature or state, is combined with other words to express state or quality, e.g., purisabhŒva, manhood; itthibhŒva, womanhood, etc.

8. "Tara" and " iya" are used to express the comparative degree, and "tama" and "iha", the superlative degree.

BŒla young, ignorant bŒlatara balatama
Dhamma religious, righteous dhammiya dhammiha
Gua virtuous guiya guiha
Medha wise medhiya medhiha
Pata noble patatara patatama
PŒpa evil, pŒpatara, pŒpiya pŒpatama, pŒpiha
Appa little, few appatara appatama
Appa   kaniya, younger kaniha, youngest
Pasattha good seyya, better seha, best
Vuddha old jeyya jeha

9. "Ka" is affixed to numerals to denote a group.

Eka + ka = ekaka, one-group; unit; groups of singles
Dvi + ka = dvika, two-group; dyad ; twofold group
Catu + ka = catukka, four-group; tetrad ; threefold group

These derivatives take either the masculine or the neuter.

10. "Kkhattu" is affixed to numerals to denote the number of times.

Eka + kkhattu = ekakkhattu, once
Dvi + kkhattu = dvikkhattu, twice

11. "DhŒ" is affixed to numerals, "so" and "thŒ" to others, to form distributive adverbs.

Eka + dhŒ = ekadhŒ, in one way
ca + dhŒ = pacadhŒ, in five ways, fivefold
Bahu + dhŒ = bahudhŒ, in many ways, manifold
Attha + so = atthaso, according to the meaning
Sabba + so = sabbaso, in every way
––a + thŒ = a––athŒ, in another way, differently
Sabba + thŒ = sabbathŒ, in every way

These last two classes of derivatives are treated as declinables.

It should be understood that some comparatives and superlatives are formed by prefixing ati, and atva or ativiya to the positive respectively.

Exercise 22-A

1. "RŒjŒ bhavatu dhammiko."
2. "Socati puttehi puttimŒ."
3. Tava paiccena mama ki payojana?
4. Aha mama mŒtŒpitare sadŒ dvikkhattu vandŒmi.
5. Manussattam'pi labhitvŒ kasmŒ tumhe pu––a na karotha?
6. Eso saddho dŒyako sabbadŒ sla sammŒ rakkhati.
7. Sabbesu devamanussesu sammŒ-sambuddho pana seho hoti.
8. lmesa dvinna sŒvkŒna aya pana jeyyo seyyo ca hoti.
9. Tasmi Œpae vŒnijo, dŒrumayabhaŒni na vikkiŒti.
10. Yo saddho vŒ pa––o vŒ ya ya desa gacchati so tatth'eva pjito hoti.
11. MahŒra––o kanihaputto imasmi rahe seharŒjabhaŒgŒriko hoti.
12. AmhŒka antevŒsikŒna kaiyo pana venayiko, kaniho pana Œbhidhammiko.
13. LokiyajanŒ pu––apŒpa katvŒ sugatiduggatsu uppajjitvŒ bahudhŒ kŒyikasukhadukkha bhujanti.
14. "Tesa saccena slena - khantimettabalenaca
Te pi tva anurakkhantu - Œrogyena sukhena ca."

Exercise 22-B

1. What is the good of your manhood if you do no good to others?
2. Every bodily deed is mind-made.
3. His eldest brother is the most virtuous boy in the school.
4. The great multitude sat in the hall in different ways.
5. Health is the best wealth.
6. It is a Buddha who understands the nature of a Buddha in every way.
7. I went to see the treasurer several times.
8. All ships are not made of iron.
9. What is the use of worldly goods to monks and nuns?
10. He advised me in every way to strive to attain Buddhahood.
11. Twice I wrote to him, but he did not send a reply even once.
12. My youngest brother is the wisest of all.
13. The righteous and wise men are very few.
14. Wooden beds are better than iron* beds.

*Use the Ablative case.